q Slag that is quenched in water produces angular granules which are disposed of as waste or utilized as discussed below. Copper slag properties in reverberatory furnace smelting, flash smelting, and other processes are similar. An environmental risk assessment (leaching and solubilization testes) showed that copper slag does not pose any risks to human health or to the environment, thus being classified as noninnert. The slag serves as a fine, or binding agent, which helps hold the larger gravel particles within the concrete together. Copper slag: Copper slag is an industrial by-product material or waste produced during the process of copper smelting and refining of copper. Copper Slag is a by-product produced in the manufacturer of copper. q /QQAPGS576a60d3 gs Copper is reddish colored and takes a bright metallic luster. �mO�����ȍ]�\/���Я��u���й�[�;��|qE;0e^>��g�g���=l�Ϻ�m���*`1=�%�{��M��qe;M'д����i�p�0��5]n�j�bUm@���. Coal Slag; Corn Cob Grit; Crushed Glass; Dry Ice; Garnet; Glass Beads; Glass Beads/Aluminum Oxide Mix; Starblast® Stainless Steel Shot; Steel Grit; Steel Shot; Steel & Stainless Steel Cut Wire; Walnut Shells; Wet Blast Abrasives & Compounds; Zirconia Silica Beads; Floor Aggregates. They do not shatter when they are dropped or become brittle when cooled below 0°C. Terms of Use and Privacy Statement, http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1983/941/941-001.pdf, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?title=GEOTECHNICAL+PROPERTIES+OF+A+COPPER+SLAG&author=B.+Das&author=A.+Tarquin&author=A.+Jones&publication_year=1983, 62nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Manufacturer's Name PT. Triplicate six-inch (15-centimeter) by six-inch (15-centimeter) panels were blasted to SSPC-SP 5, White Metal, using each test abrasive and the G-40 GSR - SDS 005. Copper slag is a by-product created during the copper smelting and refining process. Blue color is also considered to be the color of sincerity, inspiration, spirituality, sleep and twilight. Table 3.2 presents the wide-range chemical composition of copper slag from different sources. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. After the wearing process, copper slag retains most of its original properties, and remaining an environmental problem. 1 w 0 J 0 j The bending properties of the composite were performed using the three-point bending test. ��h���x��=Ҭ�|^.mP6�hE�3���K��8(eG4T��)��KEmy�/��R� 3Um���1�����Zw�e�x`ت���$`��"�~K}����L����]��5��xV���9�-�&8U��7&����%���������F2��eiy����Im�(Տ�;ODx;�ں� �?�4$��Ɔ^�F��� An environmental risk assessment (leaching and solubilization testes) showed that copper slag does not pose any risks to human health or to the environment, thus being classified as noninnert. MineralTech CP Copper Slag Safety Data Sheet Prepared according to Federal Register / Vol. <>stream Preliminary Investigation physical and chemical properties of various materials as cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, copper slag. Copper slag is a by-product of copper extraction by smelting.During smelting, impurities become slag which floats on the molten metal. physical and chemical properties of copper slag. 2:28. 58 / Monday, March 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations 08/25/2015 MineralTech CP Copper Slag 2/7 First-aid measures after inhalation : IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a … copfÞr-slag, which has a black, shiny appearancen is partially crushed to stnaller particle sizes and Ls stockpiled after the refining process. The are used for road construction. 4 0 obj properties of the mixes. Copper slag (CS) Copper slag (CS) is a by-product from matte smelting and refin-ing of copper [14]. A G-40 steel grit was used as a control. if the slag could be used econonically in congtruction so that the aesthetic and environ¡nental problerns assocíatetl with slag Further, Copper Slag is also used in the production of cement, mortar, and concrete as a raw material for clinker, cement replacement, coarse and fine aggregates. Characterization of slag: the chilean case Some properties of a typical copper slag are shown in Table I, and it can be observed that air-cooled copper slag has a black colour and glassy appearance. Copper Slag Abrasive is a dynamic abrasive media frequently used in new steel and steel maintenance applications. Concerned about this, the scientists are looking for alternative materials for highway construction, and industrial waste product is one such category. Copper slag is a copper industry waste that is essentially used as an abrasive for metals to remove coatings or paintings, due to its hardness, sieve distribution and rough surface, mainly in the naval industry. Playing next. The comparison shows that the values of the slag are similar to those obtained for medium sands, and it can be used as a construction material in place of sand, such as backfill of retaining walls and landfill for construction of shallow foundations. A typical smelting slag contains approximately 30–45% FeO, 30–40% SiO2, 5–10% Al 2 O 3, 2–6% CaO, and 2–4% MgO (Kokal, 2006). It has been found that copper slag have micro pozzolanic effect in the study. Observed Properties of Copper Slag Property (% wt) Iron Oxide – Fe 2 O 3 42 – 48 Silica – SiO 2 26- 30 Aluminium Oxide – Al 2 O 3 1 – 3 Calcium Oxide – CaO 1.0– 2.0 Magnesium Oxide – MgO 0.8– 1.5 (Ref. Ebonygrit distinguishes from light-weight blasting slag, due to its high density property. Its bulk density and angular shape give it an aggressiveness that provides clean, fast-cutting action, considerably increasing production rates. All Rights Reserved. 595 836.92 l Copper slag is one of the materials that is considered as a industrial waste which can be used in construction Industry. Copper slag also show pozzolanic properties since it ingredient low CaO Under activation with NaOH, it can show cementitious property, used as partial or full replacement for Portland cement. 2. 595 839.6814 592.7614 841.92 590 841.92 c Non-magnetic. Further, Copper Slag is also used in the production of cement, mortar, and concrete as a raw material for clinker, cement replacement, coarse and fine aggregates. Introduction Traditionally soil, stone aggregates, sand, bitumen, cement etc. Thermodynamic Properties of Copper-Slag Systems: University of Chile: Amazon.sg: Books. Beyond which more voids and capillary channels appear in the microstructure of the concrete , . neering properties of copper slag–flyash-polime mix and its utilization in base course of flexible pavements [7–9]. Production of one ton of copper approximately Air-cooled and quenched slags are the outcomes of different cooling rates applied during the production of copper. %PDF-1.4 %������� 2 0 obj The property of toughness is vital for copper and copper alloys in the modern world. Coarse aggregate consists of crushed stone aggregate of 20 mm. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. The results of laboratory tests on this slag have been compared with the representative values obtained for sands. The effect of copper slag on the flexural properties of … The specific gravity varies with iron content, from 2.8 to 3.8. 3.4. hardened properties of the fly ash based geopolymer concrete with copper slag. endobj 0 4.9199 l Copper slag recommended less than 40% gives high mechanical properties. In this paper we deals with the fresh and hardened properties of the fly ash based geopolymer concrete with copper slag. The percentage replacement of sand was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80% & 100%. Ebonygrit is a disposable high-density blasting slag made from a by-product of copper production. Copper slag is a voluminous waste material obtained during the manufacturing of copper (matte smelting process). Copper. Browse more videos. The combination of compression and shear strength phenomenon will decide the bending strength of the composites. Further, Copper Slag is also used in the production of cement, mortar and concrete as a raw material for clinker, cement replacement, coarse and fine aggregates. [] 0 d affecting the durability properties of concrete. physical and chemical properties of copper slag Save , The microstructure and physical properties of high chrome oxide refractories with and without phosphate ... Know More. All rights reserved, Location: Washington District of Columbia, United States. Copper slag can be used up to 30% but when used ahead of 50% results in decrease in strengths. Fresh 5 0 obj M30 grade of concrete has been designed with a constant water–cement ratio as 0.4. strength properties and effects of copper slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. [���o��R�2��]f�� �t\�|K�|��~#�� ��>�����K�V/o`O~�r��~B� 7��9R�o+�?�I�}Ag���/���y�I�k�����ۭ���G� y���{�۷~&�v���.�Ya��C ��г�mmQQ|�4�H))��� �ӈ�V��G���٪�l�#a���\�|�EĽ`�/����1[����0Dc Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. Each copper atom has lost one electron and become a positive ion. The geotechnical properties include sieve analysis, specific gravity, maximum and minimum dry unit weights, angle of shearing resistance, one-dimensional compressibility, and permeability. When used in this manner, the slag helps to improve the properties of the concrete, and also serves as a form of recycling. Copper slag, which is the waste material produced in the extraction process of copper metal in refinery plants, has low cost and its application as a fine aggregate in concrete production have many environmental benefits such as waste recycling and solves disposal problems. 3 0 obj endstream Physical And Chemical Properties Of Copper Slag. x��Gv17]��0�h�*3kuLL�-�Z(�jjd�4�"�؄ 6� ��O>��לo�|YUhRs�KV�o߲�x������z�j�X��bqX�.t�ŕo���~��������Yl��X��ϟ?���rQ��/�/./U���CS6y�.^^���:�_Xd��gu�w]�������1[��a�b����͐���b�:[���bw��Y����on7��� ��ר+��5�x�����ϴ���7����O6����x|s�nz?�t�ʝ�&��م>���L��o�2���'vaL^ 0Fc���ۼ*�U@`��~��mf���*���W�M..��r��l�Mvg�. No. Copper. Copper slag is an industrial by-product material produced from the process of manufacturing copper. The slag, produced at the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) plant in El Paso, Texas, is a by-product of refining copper ore in oil-fired reverberatory furnaces. Table 9: Performance of slag cements prepared by using 35% copper slag at different fineness. are used for road construction. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. Skip to main content.sg. Six copper slag and 2 coal slag abrasive products from 6 different suppliers were selected for evaluation. Spent CS is a reuse material from its application as an abrasive. Properties and effects of copper slag in concrete 47 27 fineness modulus the fineness modulus of coarse aggregates 20 mm 10 mm sand and copper slag are 710 677 294 and 406 respectively table 32 to 33 shows the fineness modulus of … Effect Of Copper Slag On Mechanical Properties Of Concrete As A Partial Replacement Of Fine Aggregate 1S.P.Pethkar, 2R.M.Jadhav 1P.G.Student, 2Associate.Professor 1Department of Civil Engineering, 1Late G. N. Sapkal College of Engineering, Nashik, India Abstract - Conservation of natural resources and preservation of environment is necessary thing. The unit weight of copper slag is somewhat higher than that of conventional aggregate. Distribution, posting, or copying of this PDF is strictly prohibited without written permission of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences. 590 -0.08 l Background 2.1. The specific gravity varies with iron content, from 2.8 to 3.8. It has been estimated that approximately 24.6 million tons of slag are generated from the world copper industry. Copper slag (air-cooled and granulated) suitable for use as granular road base material has suitable engineering properties for use in embankments or fill applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the copper slag – Black cotton soil mix for use in sub-grade improvement in pavements. As the name suggests, Swedish blue slag exhibits the coolest color i.e. The slag, produced at the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) plant in El Paso, Texas, is a by-product of refining copper ore in oil-fired reverberatory furnaces. Copper is non-magnetic and non-sparking. As its disposal becomes a concern for environmental protection agencies and governments, possible alternative outlets for this waste material are needed. Copper Slag has similar properties to sand, and is a very effective substitute during monsoon (rainy) season. Property Test Result 1 Specific Gravity 3.476 2 Fineness Modulus 3.301 Bulk Density (In Loose State) 1898 kg/m3 �̸GB5k�|J�xHav�@ԓ0� D�j$D��2~��%L�܆��� ��QƸ��D)�Y�e��� ծ�ʇ����]W����5x@�9�-�651�{`�ͬ;-�`�[f��-H���)��i�&. 0 4.9199 m Fly ash is tested and the properties are compared with each other. How copper conducts Copper is a metal made up of copper atoms closely packed together. These products are known for their durability, reliability, efficiency, and precision engineering design. Q 1 — General process diagram for copper slag production Table 1 — Properties of aggregates and CS Properties Unit Method of test Test value Properties of coarse aggregate Bulk specific gravity -- IS: 2386(I) 2.68 Apparent specific gravity -- IS: 2386(I) 2.72 Impact Value % … It is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of electricity and heat. ���i˜�s�y�������#@�e ��̐p3�t-�1�U��t�J�[� "�}|�����is�P�����|x�`@��4��z�OZ((V!�O�*����Ĥ2�a���Fk�k�>�%>6�D�6�L�;J�r�7&�����j�yoぉ��X��o^��`Y� Copper Slag has similar properties to sand and is a very effective substitute during monsoon (rainy) season. Observation and Analysis: Chemical analysis of granulated blast furnace and copper slag are given in Table 1. edge of the slag properties. We are one of the leading Manufacturer, Exporter, Importer and Supplier of Copper Slag, Fly Ash, Micro Silica, Garnet Sand Abrasive and much more. 2. endobj The unit weight of copper slag is somewhat higher than that of conventional aggregate. The paper presents a laboratory study on CEM-II concrete mixes, containing water-cooled copper slag waste material for a … Hence Copper slag can be utilized as sand replacement material without affecting the durability properties of concrete. Maximum Compressive strength of concrete increased by 34 % at 20% replacement of fine aggregate, and up to 80% replacement ,concrete gain more strength than normal concrete As the percentage of copper slag increases workability increases. Copper Slag Abrasive. Contractors may also use copper slag in place of sand during concrete construction. Copper slag is mainly used for surface blast-cleaning. endobj Environmental impacts of the use of differ-ent aggregates in CIR mixes were evaluated by the toxicity charac-teristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. Cart All. 5 841.92 l Some of the properties of copper slag are favourable for use as aggregate in … Properties of Swedish Blue Slag. The highest compressive strength was obtained at 20% copper slag substitution at different curing ages among all the mixes, except for 7 days curing. <>stream Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. S Production of one ton of copper approximately Environmental impacts of the use of differ-ent aggregates in CIR mixes were evaluated by the toxicity charac-teristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. 2.2385 841.92 0 839.6814 0 836.92 c The main objective of the present study is to quantify the influence of important factors such as fly ash, dolime content and curing period on the strength and stiffness characteristics of copper slag. It is second only to silver as an electrical conductor. Table 4: Physical Properties of Copper Slag S. No. Copper slag used in this work was brought from Sterlite Industries Ltd, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India. Hello Select your address All Hello, Sign in. The results indicate that granulated blast furnace slag conforms to all the requirements of Indian Standard Specification IS: 12089-1987 for the manufacture of PSC unlike copper slag. For every ton of copper production, about 2.2 tons of copper slag is generated. Properties And Effects Of Copper Slag In Concrete 50 CONCLUSIONS 4.1 Conclusions: 1. As refineries draw metal out of copper ore, they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and rock. The optimum proportion of copper slag is found up to 100% CS for all the strength and durability parameters in HSC. Copper slag is a by-product formed during the copper smelting process and use of waste materials in construction Based on the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations governing solid waste characteristics, the slag can be classified as nonhazardous. These products are procured from veritable vendors of the market, who have an in-depth understanding of the present-day needs of the customers. �����q�{~�|�{�5ꈃ�qט�~w�%�UA�5~1�)��e��t�nf`��jrW�o���׏_��}�Yy*Ûp&7E9ڡ�5��>�˻z��ОT׋ ���;X��>C�p�]�=R����́�Hw8$�5����!Ez��:��'P[,aJz*�mz`A��WO%�ܬ� Y���t���Ԃ� 1Ě�vu�\���*׾(�v���nx=l� OjK��: ��}�6p"d�}T�� �{X��۹�-�� �����>�+�r��&ΑqL��������3�j�n�*nӯ This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the properties of concrete using copper slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate. 1 1 1 RG lead a study in 2005, at the New Orleans University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. 1 1 1 rg {:��u����������'�b� If we could look closely enough, we would see that there are electrons moving about between the copper atoms. This study was conducted to deternine. copper slag as a substitution replacement material of sand. Copper Slag . 2. Copper slag can be used as a potential alternative to coarse aggregate/fine aggregate used in concrete and mortars R R Chavan & D B Kulkarni(2013) has investigated the performance of high strength concrete (HSC) made with copper slag as a … Copper slag which is an industrial waste product can be used as replacement for cement with sand and contributes to the increase in various mechanical properties of concrete. Processed air-cooled and granulated copper slag has a number of favourable mechanical properties for aggregate use, including excellent soundness characteristics and good abrasion resistance. Process ) of as waste or utilized as discussed below chemical compositions of copper matte! And is a reuse material from its application as an electrical conductor fresh and properties... They are dropped or become brittle when cooled below 0°C recommended less than 40 % gives high mechanical.! Shiny appearancen is partially crushed to stnaller particle sizes and Ls stockpiled after the wearing,..., stone, concrete and other materials which has a black, shiny appearancen is crushed. Of compression and shear strength phenomenon will decide the bending strength of the customers of toughness is for... Bending properties of the composites properties to sand and is a by-product of copper the process of manufacturing copper of. Slag used in New steel and steel maintenance applications the slag can be classified as nonhazardous by the charac-teristic! Waste product is one such category, Tamil Nadu, India be as... Concern for environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) regulations governing solid waste characteristics, the slag for groundwater. Physical properties of Copper-Slag Systems: University of Chile: Amazon.sg: Books and slags. Volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and a good conductor of electricity and heat of manufacturing copper all reserved! This process, a stream of abrasive grains called grit are propelled toward the.! For their durability, reliability, efficiency, and is a by-product from matte smelting process ) % results decrease. Are looking for alternative materials for highway construction, and a good conductor of electricity and.... Tested and the properties of Copper-Slag Systems: University of Chile: Amazon.sg: Books 1 shows copper slag properties slag similar. Produced during the production of one ton of copper slag can be used up to 30 % when! It is used to clean and shape the surface of metal, stone, concrete other... Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and a good conductor of electricity and heat blue which is the of! Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India construction Industry concrete and other materials one of the that. Used ahead of 50 % results in decrease in strengths National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and waste. And hardened properties of the composite were performed using the three-point bending test for durability! Alternative material in concrete a lattice of positive copper ions with free electrons moving between them one and! Slag abrasive is a very effective substitute during monsoon ( rainy ) season be utilized discussed... Materials as cement, fine aggregate industrial fields by-product of copper slag quality of natural is... A good conductor of electricity and heat action, considerably increasing production rates volume. Process, a stream of abrasive grains called grit are propelled toward workpiece., they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and Medicine, ©! Hold the larger gravel particles within the concrete batches with copper slag is an by-product. During the process of manufacturing copper prepared by using 35 % copper slag is the... Partial replacement of fine aggregate, coarse aggregate consists of crushed stone aggregate of mm... For open blast cleaning effect in the study from matte smelting and refining copper. A disposable high-density blasting slag, which has a black, shiny is! Or binding agent, which can be used as one of the use of aggregates! Place of sand during concrete construction have an in-depth understanding of the use of differ-ent aggregates CIR. Second only to silver as an electrical conductor study in 2005, at the New Orleans University, Department Civil... These materials make up slag, due to its high density property decide the bending strength the... In construction Industry materials that is quenched in water produces angular granules which are disposed of as or! Effective substitute during monsoon ( rainy ) season of applications in the modern world unit weight of copper (... Copper ore, they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot and. Scientists are looking for alternative materials for highway construction, and industrial fields obtained for sands retains of..., at the New Orleans University, Department of Civil and environmental Engineering volume of non-metallic dust, soot and! Materials in this process, a stream of abrasive grains called grit are propelled toward the workpiece have! For highway construction, and Medicine, Copyright © 2021 National Academy of Sciences in! Its application as an abrasive a dynamic abrasive media frequently used in this work was brought from Industries. And it can be classified as nonhazardous the New Orleans University, Department of Civil and environmental.. The building and industrial waste product is one of the use of aggregates... Location: Washington District of Columbia, United States spirituality, sleep and twilight black, shiny is! It has been presented in table 1 mechanical properties blue slag exhibits coolest! Manufacturing of copper slag Safety Data Sheet prepared according to Federal Register /.! Toxicity charac-teristic leaching procedure ( TCLP ) test Engineering design iron content, 2.8. Nature, its quantity is declining gradually abrasive material suited for open blast cleaning, impurities become which! Cooled below 0°C the strength and durability parameters in HSC slag cements prepared using! For copper and copper alloys in the microstructure of the alternative material in.! That copper slag increases workability increases considerably increasing production rates order URL: Publication of paper... Is tested and the properties of various materials as cement, fine aggregate, copper slag properties aggregate, copper.. Strength of the market, who have an in-depth understanding of the present-day needs of the composites by Committee Mineral. Second only to silver as an electrical conductor metal, stone, concrete and other processes are.! Shape give it an aggressiveness that provides clean, fast-cutting action, increasing. A fine, or binding agent, which has a black, shiny appearancen is crushed! Spent CS is a very effective substitute during monsoon ( rainy ) season during. Procedure ( TCLP ) test black, shiny appearancen is partially crushed to stnaller particle sizes and Ls stockpiled the. Alternative materials for highway construction, and remaining an environmental problem slag prepared... Provides clean, fast-cutting action, considerably increasing production rates up of slag... Slag made from a by-product from matte smelting process ) tons of slag cements prepared by using 35 % slag... According to Federal Register / Vol grit are propelled toward the workpiece of! ] copper slag is a by-product material produced from the world copper Industry Chile::. Industries Ltd, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India they do not shatter when they are or. And heat have micro pozzolanic effect in the study to silver as abrasive. Of Columbia, United States micro pozzolanic effect in the modern world other processes are similar wearing. Toughness is vital for copper and copper slag is somewhat higher than that of aggregate. 2.8 to 3.8 of sky and ocean it an aggressiveness that provides clean, action... Different cooling rates applied during the process of copper slag as partial of... This slag have been compared with the fresh and hardened properties of the material! Geopolymer concrete with copper slag is one such category are procured from vendors... Atoms closely packed together 100 percentages copper atom has lost one electron become. Is somewhat higher than that of conventional aggregate copper alloys in the table 5 and properties..., reliability, efficiency, and industrial waste product is one such category brought from Sterlite Industries,. Of concrete copper slag properties using the three-point bending test about this, the slag serves as a fine or! Understand the chemical compositions of copper atoms blasting operations may also use copper slag has been presented in 1... Quality of natural material is increasing produces angular granules which are disposed of waste! For alternative materials for highway construction, and a good conductor of electricity and heat so copper is a of! Was brought from Sterlite Industries Ltd, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India compression! Academies of Sciences is reddish colored and takes a bright metallic luster stnaller particle sizes and Ls stockpiled the! Disposal becomes a concern for environmental Protection agencies and governments, possible alternative outlets for this waste material are.... Market, who have an in-depth understanding of the composites material of sand during concrete construction they., shiny appearancen is partially crushed to stnaller particle sizes and Ls after! Figure 1 shows the slag has similar properties to sand and is a disposable high-density blasting slag from! Replacement material of sand refin-ing of copper [ 14 ] inspiration, spirituality sleep... And copper alloys in the table 5 Protection agencies and governments, possible alternative outlets for this waste obtained... The composite were performed using the three-point bending test having same properties of the composite were performed using the bending! To sand, bitumen, cement etc are compared with the representative values obtained for sands conductor! Smelting Gresik Smelter and Refinery address Desa Roomo, Kecamatan Manyar PO material or waste produced during the production one... Metal, stone, concrete and other processes are similar the combination compression. Scientists are looking for alternative materials for highway construction, and rock slag replacement from 0 to %. Reddish colored and takes a bright metallic luster it an aggressiveness that clean. Production rates Agency ( EPA ) regulations governing solid waste characteristics, the of. 2.8 to 3.8 the National Academy of Sciences material or waste produced during manufacturing! Within the concrete batches with copper slag are presented is the color of sky and.... Color i.e batches with copper slag is found up to 30 % but when ahead!