Religious seminaries accepted a few African applicants as early as 1841. This position was bureaucratised with an administrative apparatus by the end of this century. The 19th century is an era of revolutionary change in South Africa. A central reason for the establishment of these schools is the need for cheap labour. 47) of 1953 the government tightened its control over religious high schools by eliminating almost all financial aid, forcing many churches to sell their schools to the government or close them entirely. 1652: Dutch settlement Dutch East India Co. establishes settlement at Cape Town and soon after issues land grants for the interior. Six years after the Dutch East India Company established its colony at the Cape, the first formal school is begun in 1658. Schools played an important part in this experience. In 1852 the independent state of Transvaal and in 1854 the Orange Free State established their own institutions of higher learning in Dutch. This decree was unpopular with learners and teachers alike, particularly in towns like the Johannesburg township of Soweto, where practically no-one spoke Afrikaans. The white education system was restructured, in anticipation of democracy, by the apartheid government. This school was founded by Commander Jan van Riebeeck for the slave children brought to the Cape in the Dutch ship, the Amersfoort, which had captured them off a Portuguese slaver. An allied experience during this period that should not be neglected is the relationship between South Africa and the British protectorates of Basutoland, Swaziland and Bechuanaland and the historically mandated territory of South West Africa. Nothing of their past was given recognition in the school. 1000 - For thousands of years hunter-gatherers called the San people inhabit South Africa. The South African Schools Act, 1996 was promulgated to "provide for a uniform system for the organisation, governance and funding of schools". © 2004-2021 K12academics.com — All Rights Reserved. Language soon became a sensitive issue in education. A TIMELINE OF THE HISTORY OF AFRICA. Six years after the Dutch East India Company established its colony at the Cape, the first formal school is begun in 1658. Timeline Description: Apartheid was a time in South Africa between 1948 and 1994 when the government made laws to discriminate against black people. By the late nineteenth century, three types of schools were receiving government assistance--ward schools, or small rural schools generally employing one teacher; district schools, providing primary-level education to several towns in an area; and a few secondary schools in larger cities. Moving into the democratic era, the most recent period of South African education history is focussed on the legacy inherited by the post-apartheid state and the choices facing the state in terms of policy development and South Africa’s relationship with its neighbours. Religious seminaries accepted a few African applicants as early as 1841. It formally brings to an end missionary control of the education of black people and institutes a system of mass education. SA extreme swimmer Ryan Stramrood up for award – … Battles and smallpox push back the indigenous populations of the San (hunter-gatherers) and the Khoikhoi (farmers). In May 1945, Prime Minister Smuts represented South Africa in San Francisco at the drafting of the United Nations Charter. History of Education in South Africa 1806 to 1900 The earliest European schools in South Africa were established in the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth century by Dutch Reformed Church elders committed to biblical instruction, which was necessary for church confirmation. Even if the curriculum cannot be completely comprehensive, it can be constructed in a way that minimizes privileging one group’s historical narrative over others, thereby making it less susceptible to being used for divisive ends. Since then it has been copied and pasted by various Web sites - some without acknowledgement of the original source. Enrolments in these republics increased after the government of the Union agreed to the use of Afrikaans in the schools and to allow Afrikaner parents greater control over primary and secondary education. The South African economy took a significant hit in 1986 when the United States and Great Britain imposed sanctions on the country because of its practice of apartheid. CE. The Christian College was founded at Potchefstroom in 1869 and was later incorporated into the University of South Africa and renamed Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. As the slave children are enrolled, so they are forced to take new identities. Authority in South Africa has been as of yet quite controversial, and before we can understand the authority roles of the government we need to understand their roles in the history of South Africa. African children attended mission schools, for the most part, and were taught by clergy or by lay teachers, sometimes with government assistance. How to make a timeline? In terms of the Interim Constitution, the Mandela government restructured these departments as well as tertiary education departments, splitting responsibilities between nine newly formed provincial education departments and a single national education department. A chronology of key events in the history of South Africa from 4th-century migrations to the present day. Throughout this time, most religious schools in the eastern Cape accepted Xhosa children who applied for admission; in Natal many other Nguni-speaking groups sent their children to mission schools after the mid-nineteenth century. 1806 to 1900 Latest Posts. 250 - The Bantu people begin to migrate into South Africa from the north. The establishment of a proper system of education begins with the period of British rule at the Cape. Imiqhayi School, Mount Coke, King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. The country experiences the mineral revolution which sets in motion the great wars on the military front, on the cultural front and the identity front. The NP's narrow election victory in 1948 gave Afrikaans new standing in the schools and, after that, all high-school graduates were required to be proficient in Afrikaans and English. This paper focuses on the process of higher education policy development in post-election South Africa during the period 1994-1998. South Africa is currently transforming its education system as the last traces of the apartheid (history) curriculum are being phased out and a new (history) curriculum is introduced. Boer War: 1899-1902: Outright warfare between British and Afrikaners derives from the various tensions which have characterized the 1890s, in particular British expansionism and an understandable Afrikaner fear of being surrounded, squeezed, absorbed. By 2006 it was clear that OBE as a social experiment had failed, and it was quietly shelved. de Klerk became president of South Africa and dismantled many of the laws that allowed apartheid to become the way of life in the country. It was profoundly oppressive. This school was founded by Commander Jan van Riebeeck for the slave children brought to the Cape in the Dutch ship, the Amersfoort, which had … This is entirely wrong and the Government recognizes it. Formal education is interrupted everywhere and the nature of the contemporary South African school, with all its marks of strength, youth vitality, and weaknesses, poor teaching and learning cultures, is established. The curriculum will inevitably stress certain themes over others, and give voice to some perspectives but not others. While school attendance is not compulsory, it is introduced everywhere. The great apparatuses of power were introduced, such as the formal parliaments, the institutions of the military, the hospital services, and alongside these, the institution of the Anglican Church. At least two dozen English-language schools operated in rural areas of the Cape Colony by 1827, but their presence rankled among devout Afrikaners, who considered the English language and curriculum irrelevant to rural life and Afrikaner values. Opponents of the Land Act formed the South African National N… mpu1. For Asians and coloured children, education was compulsory between the ages of seven and fifteen. These conflicts are expressed on several levels and persist in the missionary movement itself, in its target community, the African and slave people, and between the missionaries and the latter, into the climactic era of full modernity in the middle of the 20th century. They did so by ‘voting with their feet’ – they escaped from the school into the mountains surrounding the Cape. In the past, many scholars tended to use the start of colonial rule as the dawn of South African history (Molema, 1920: 51-52; Theal, 1894). African Americans mobilize to bring public education to the South for the first time. To counter the British influence, a group of Afrikaner churches proposed an education program, Christian National Education, to serve as the core of the school curriculum. Ghana . The opening moment of education in South Africa coincides with the foundation of the colonial experience at the Cape in 1652. Through literature study, the past of education prior to the 1994 democratic elections was revealed. The number of schools for blacks increased during the 1960s, but their curriculum was designed to prepare children for menial jobs. Following the British victory in the South African War, the British High Commissioner for Southern Africa, Sir Alfred Milner, brought thousands of teachers from Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to instil the English language and British cultural values, especially in the two former Afrikaner republics. But, like their descendents who refused  to accept anything less than the best education that can be provided, they rejected this degraded education. In this decree, physical science and practical subjects would be taught in English, mathematics and social science subjects would be taught in Afrikaans, and music and cultural subjects would be taught in the learner's native language. HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA Timeline. This incorporation is, however, important for the needs of the growing economy. The establishment of the first school in the country’s history is deeply significant for two reasons. South African involvement in Angola ended formally after the signing of a United Nations-brokered agreement known as the New York Accords between the governments of Angola, Cuba and South Africa, resulting in the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Angola and also South Africa's withdrawal from South West Africa (now Namibia), which the UN regarded as illegally occupied since 1966. As we confront the intense difficulties at our schools and come face-to-face with our teaching and learning challenges -  the decline in reading, writing, comprehension and computing - it is the example of acting in our own interests that we need to recover. It means, minimally, that we hold everybody to account, from political authorities to teachers, students and administrators in our schools (ourselves included!). This is in defiance of the Dutch East India Company or without their knowledge. As teachers we need to be always trying new ways of being better at what we do. The kind of education that is introduced is deliberately inferior. YOUR FAMILY HISTORY; SOUTH AFRICAN TIMELINE 1488 - 1999; SOUTH AFRICAN TIMELINE 1488 - 1999 I originally compiled this timeline in 1999. Important about this period is the consideration of policy choices in relation to the themes of power and its reconstitution and the imperative of reviewing the current era against the historical experiences which give it its social, political, economic and cultural character. Significant about the period is understanding how strongly, with the exception of Lesotho, the educational systems of the region are tied up with the missionary and colonial experience and how significant these are in the challenges these countries have to confront when they become independent during the period from the 1960s to the early 1990s. Out of the series of wars emerges the single political entity of South Africa. These schools provided schooling of the same quality that white children received in state schools. And then, to buy their obedience, they were plied with alcohol. A timeline of the History of education in South Africa Apartheid and Post Apartheid from 1900 - 1994. But during the last decades of that century, all four provinces virtually abolished African enrolment in government schools. The controversial 1913 Land Act, passed three years after South Africa gained its independence, marked the beginning of territorial segregation by forcing black Africans to live in reserves and making it illegal for them to work as sharecroppers. C. 1,700 BC The kingdom of Kush arises south of Egypt Amersfoort Legacy - History of education in South Africa, History of slavery and early colonisation in South Africa, Amersfoort Legacy: A history through pictures. Racial segregation and white supremacy had become central aspects of South African policy long before apartheid began. The National Party (NP) was able to capitalise on the fear of racial integration in the schools to build its support. Important about this period is that it marks the institutionalization of education in the country and its formal deployment in the cause of building a white identity. 1990 to 1993 What does this mean? C. 5,000 BC Farming begins in Egypt. They selected educated families, for the most part, to establish a British presence in the Cape Colony. The Minister said that the reason for this decree was to ensure that black people can communicate effectively with English and Afrikaans speaking white people. Provincial autonomy in education was strengthened in the early twentieth century, and all four provincial governments used government funds primarily to educate whites. Following the Bantu Education Act (No. School life spans 13 years or grades, from grade 0, otherwise known as grade R or “reception year”, through to grade 12 or “matric” – the year of matriculation. One of the greatest mistakes of the education in the part has been this, that it has taught the African to become a European instead of remaining African. Whether or not education is used to promote or hinder peace depends largely on the school curriculum. Share | Discover in a free daily email today's famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily. 1900 to 1948 The period is marked by the introduction in the early 1950s of a series of landmark pieces of legislation, culminating, in 1953, with the Bantu Education Act. Humans migrate from Africa to other parts of the world. There are … Higher education was generally reserved for those who could travel to Europe, but in 1829 the government established the multiracial South African College, which later became the University of Cape Town. We need to think deeply about how our leaders can be engaged creatively to confront the complexities of our schools. They taught themselves to read in communities like Genadendal or, as they did in the heart of the Colonial town of Cape Town, they kept themselves religiously intact by starting madrassas, Islamic schools, where they taught each other to read and write. Although most white schools opted for the status quo, by 1993, due to government policy, 96% of white public schools became "Model C" schools. These scholars held the view that an indigenous person was a savage pagan with no history or culture to transmit. The significance of this school in presenting the themes of domination and resistance, is vital for understanding South African education. We need to delve into the historically rich controversies of this nation, with complete emphasis on the South African education system during and post-apartheid, which dates back from 1948 to 1994. Their past was given recognition in the Transvaal Republic in 1858 and properly so 1863. 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